My hometown Sherobod
Paretaka-a region, washed by the rivers
Once visiting Paretaka-Sherobod,a famous Greek historian of the IV-III cc B.C. who accompanied Alexander the Great in his military marches described it as a land with dozens of towns, incredibly beautiful nature, extremely strong and brave people who mainly were engaged in agriculture based on irrigation, horse breeding, crafts and whose genesis went back to ancient Bactrians.
Being one of the 14 districts of Surkhandarya Province, Sherobod has a very significant role in political, cultural and historical life of Uzbekistan. Located at a distance of 60 km from Termez city the district occupies an area of more than 2.73sq/km. Its population is over 117.400 people. Sherobod D.C. borders on Turkmenistan from the west. The earliest names of a mountainous Sherobod mentioned in the ancient manuscripts were Paretaka, Serobod-three settlements, Sherobod-land of lions. Playing very significant role in the world history Sherobod still attracts the attention of modern day researchers with the incredibly ancient and interesting archeological sites like Zarautsai, Jarkutan, Zartepa, Bolaliktapa etc. The discovery the oldest Zarautsai petro glyphs (7-6 mln. B.C.) in Kughitang (main chain, forming the northern boundaries of Hissar Mountains ) mountains in 1936 opened a new Golden page in studying the History of Sherobod. The results of archeological researches in Jarkutan prove that the earliest statehood on the territory of Central Asia had already been developed here in the Bronze Age XVII-XV cc B.C. The emergence of early notions of zaroastrism in Jarkutan proves that Bactrians were already acquainted with this religion in the Bronze Age. Jarkutan people were the first in Central Asia to construct towns from Pakhsa (mud+straw), skillful potters of the town were the first inventors of various elegant designs in making delicate ceramic wares. Variety of ceramic vessels, bronze and iron implements excavated in Jarkutan give us very rich information about the lifestyle of Bactrians before the invasion of Akhamenids, Greeks and Kushans.
Hujaikon is a name of famous all over CIS countries biggest salt mine that is situated in Sherobod D.C. on the southeast slope of the ridge of foothills Kugitangtau at 650 m above sea level in the village Chorbogh. Treating caves in these mountains are a unique construction and the engineering with length of 144.5 m consisting of 5 chambers, of volume to 965 cubic meters. Walls and ceilings of the cave naturally covered with a layer of salt thickness from 1 to 3 meters, is the formation of stalactites. In his way passes through a spring, a solution containing salts.
According to the Termez affiliation of the Institute of Medical Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy named after NA Semashko in the cave had created a unique microclimate, air temperature during the year is kept in the range of 17-21 C, atmospheric pressure is about 700 mm Hg. Art. Relative humidity 50-70%. Concentration of salts in the cave reaches 4,7-5,9 mg m3, consisting of sodium chloride dominated (98%), also contain salts of magnesium, potassium, iron hydroxide and 20 trace elements.
Jarkutan and the history of formation of Zoroastrizm.
Archaeological works of recent years to study the monuments of the Bronze Age on the territory of Ancient Bactria, present-day south of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan (Northern Bactria) and Northern Afghanistan (Southern Bactria) allowed us to imagine the process of formation and development of ancient agricultural civilization.
Jarkutan-a unique archaeological reserve, consisting of a huge settled area of about 100 hectares with a strong fortification and ground burials. Extensive area of Jarkutan settlement, availability of a fortified castle, powerful defensive structure and highly developed material culture makes us to consider it as a main centre of Northern Bactrian region in the late Bronze epoch and see early beginnings of a city that developed here time by time.
Complex Jarkutan is also considered to be a unique source for development of cults and religious ideology in the south of Uzbekistan in the II millennium B.C. The history of peoples of Uzbekistan in this period was critical not only in social-political, financial life but in spiritual culture as well.
One of the earliest world religions was Zoroastrizm, its history goes back to thousands years ago. Just in this period, that’s in the second half of the II millennium B.C the earliest towns, irrigation farming, transcontinental trade and proto Zoroastrianism-one of the most ancient religions were formed in the south of Uzbekistan. The temple in Jarkutan maybe distinguished as a proto Zoroastrian, characterizing the cult of fire, water, air. Fire had a dominant role.
Stationary excavations carried out in Jarkutan burial in 1995 by Uzbek-German team of archaeologists gave us rich material for studying the earliest periods of ethnic history of peoples of Central Asia and the culture of ancient tribes of agriculturists at the second half of the II millennium B.C.
During the excavations of Jarkutan more than 1484 ceramic vessels and a great deal of implements: bronze needles, awls, daggers, silicon arrowheads were found. Numerous and various earthenware gives us a complete imagination about ceramics of ancient people.
Zarautsay- grotto in Kuhitang mountains, Sherabad District of Surkhandarya province. A gallery of drawings has been preserved on the walls of the rock grotto on a height of over 2000 m. above sea level. The rock-paintings were discovered in 1939 by a hunter I.F.Lomaev who reported about them to the director of Surkhandarya regional ethnographic museum G.V.Parfyonov . Later G.V. Parfyonov fulfilled detailed description of these rock paintings. The paintings were done with red ocher on a surface of the lime scale grotto.